Tibetan Mastiff Breed Photo

Tibetan Mastiff

Tibetan mastiffs are smart, strong-willed, and independent dogs who switch between obedient and willful depending on their mood. Learn more about living with the Tibetan mastiff.
Tibetan Mastiff
Breed Group
Dog Size
Other Traits
Temperament

Tibetan Mastiff

height
  • 24-26 inches
weight
  • 70 to 150 pounds
life span
  • 10 to 12 years
breed size
  • large (61-100 lbs.)
good with
  • families
  • dogs
temperament
  • willful
  • aloof
intelligence
  • high
shedding amount
  • seasonal
exercise needs
  • medium
energy level
  • calm
barking level
  • frequent
drool amount
  • low
breed group
  • working
coat length/texture
  • long
colors
  • brown / chocolate / liver
  • gold / yellow
  • black
  • blue
  • gray
patterns
  • bicolor
  • black and tan
  • liver and tan
  • blue and tan
other traits
  • easy to groom
  • tolerates being alone
  • highly territorial
  • high potential for weight gain
  • cold weather tolerant
  • strong loyalty tendencies

Fuzzy and adorable Tibetan mastiff puppies grow into strong, determined, and sizable dogs, resembling lions or even Tibetan bears. This ancient breed's history is somewhat mysterious, but we do know that they were bred to defend herds, monasteries, and palaces in the Himalayas. The breed is thought to be the ancestor of modern mastiff breeds. 

Years of selective breeding have eroded some of the original characteristics of the Tibetan mastiff, introducing new colors and more mass. Intelligent and willful, this breed learns new skills with ease-but only when he's in the mood. 

"People that do best with the breed have a sense of humor and appreciate just how clever they are," says Rebecca Chambliss, secretary of the American Tibetan Mastiff Association and president of Tibetan Mastiff Rescue. It's relatively rare to see a Tibetan mastiff in the United States.

Appearance

The Tibetan mastiff's defining features are his lion-like mane and massive stature. Full-grown females can be 24 inches or more at the shoulder, and male Tibetan mastiffs can be 26 inches at the shoulder. Females weigh 70-120 pounds and males weigh 90-150 pounds.

red tibetan mastiff profile facing right
With their large size and furry mane, a Tibetan mastiff is almost lion-like.
| Credit: deviddo / Adobe Stock

The breed's thick double coat can be black, brown, blue-gray, red, or gold. Sometimes they have markings around the eyes, muzzle, throat, legs, and tail that vary from silver to mahogany. The outer texture of that coat is thick and coarse, while the inner texture is soft and wool-like. The Tibetan mastiff requires little grooming, except during the annual spring-to-summer shedding, or coat blowing season, when hair will be everywhere. 

The tail is feathered, similar to the mane, and arches over the dog's back in a curl. The ever-watchful, serious, deep-set eyes can be any shade of brown.

Temperament

Tibetan mastiffs are best suited for owners with dog-training experience and patience. Chambliss describes the Tibetan mastiff temperament as aloof, independent, willful, and highly intelligent. "They do not look to their people for direction, which is an issue for many people," Chambliss says. "They are guardians of people and property, and can take that job very seriously." 

tibetan mastiff red closeup
The Tibetan mastiff's thick fur keeps him warm on the coldest winter days. But, as with any breed, never leave your dog outside in extreme weather for long. If you're uncomfortable, they are, too!
| Credit: Kim / Adobe Stock

Even with proper obedience lessons-which are necessary for all breeds-Tibetan mastiffs will still do what they feel like doing. Their smarts may mean they perform perfectly in a class setting, but their independent streak may show at home when they ignore those same commands. 

Tibetan mastiffs are not overly affectionate and don't care much for over-the-top attention. They can be standoffish and have almost cat-like interactions with humans. As deeply loyal pets, they do get along with other animals-according to Chambliss, they do best when they have another large breed of dog to play with, especially when they're young. They can be wonderful family dogs-with a few caveats.

"Tibetan mastiffs can be excellent with children, but can be overprotective of 'their children,' which can be an issue when other kids come over to play," Chambliss says. Their watchful nature is so strong that it might be challenging to have guests over, as they can be surprised by strangers in their yard. "A home without a lot of people coming and going usually works best," she says. As with all dogs, proper socialization and positive reinforcement training is an absolute must. 

black and tan tibetan mastiff looking at sky
Credit: yeung wing lung/EyeEm / Adobe Stock

Living Needs

Give Tibetan mastiffs a yard to roam and protect and they'll be pleased-they usually don't mind spending time alone. Though, that yard must be fenced in: "A traditional, secure fence is an absolute must-have. Tibetan mastiffs will wander," Chambliss says. These dogs are known escape artists and may learn to open a door or gate by watching a human do it. They're just that clever! Because of their sneaky tendencies, it's important to microchip your Tibetan mastiff.

Breeders say that the Tibetan mastiff may be quiet during the day, but he has a tendency to bark at night. "Tibetan mastiffs are very vocal and have a deep bark that carries," Chambliss says. "Keeping them inside prevents issues with neighbors." But take note: A crate is not an acceptable option for these dogs. Their instinct is to watch over their home, and caging them keeps them from doing so. This can lead to anxiety and undesirable behaviors.

tibetan mastiff vertical closeup
red tibetan mastiff in field red
Left: That floof is just begging to be pet! A Tibetan mastiff is happy to curl up with his humans and can make a wonderful family dog. | Credit: VCG / Getty
Right: Historically bred as guard dogs, Tibetan mastiffs are watchful and love their family deeply. | Credit: Tatyana / Adobe Stock

With that double coat, they thrive in cooler and even cold weather and tend to be more active as the temperature drops. They also make good indoor companions and will curl up by the fire or fan, depending on the season. 

Care 

Moderate exercise, in the form of regular walks, is necessary for the physical and mental health of Tibetan mastiffs-they have a tendency to become obese. Because these dogs can be willful, their walks should always be leashed.

When training the Tibetan mastiff, it's important to be positive and never punitive. "Training a Tibetan mastiff must be done with positive reinforcement only," Chambliss says. She says this clever breed learns directly by watching and experiencing life, so being positive and patient will teach them to behave in kind.

Brush your Tibetan mastiff once a week and his grooming needs throughout the rest of the year will be minimal. That is, until spring or summer shedding season strikes. Then, a hurricane of hair will cover the house for weeks. A comb or de-shedding tool can help.

tibetan mastiff lying in snow
Credit: annatronova / Adobe Stock

Health

A Tibetan mastiff's lifespan is 10-12 years. The breed is considered to be fairly healthy, although they can be prone to certain health issues that commonly impact large dogs.  

  • Elbow and hip dysplasia: This occurs when a dog's joint doesn't develop properly, resulting in a loose, unstable joint. This can cause permanent damage, including degenerative joint disease.
  • Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is a condition that can cause weight gain, excessive shedding, intolerance to cold, and lethargy. It requires lifelong treatment.

It's recommended that Tibetan mastiffs get all health screenings listed by the ATMA, including a screening for eye problems.

tibetan mastiff puppy laying in grass
As with all breeds, Tibetan mastiff puppies should be trained with positive reinforcement and patience. These smart pups can be strong-willed!
| Credit: s5iztok / Getty

And because that fluffy Tibetan mastiff coat is suited for cold weather, these dogs don't do well in hot, humid climates. Dogs don't sweat like humans do, so make sure to watch for signs of heatstroke. During the summer, walk your mastiff early in the morning or in the evening when the sun isn't high and hot, and always make sure he has access to water, shade, and AC.

History

Tibetan mastiffs served as guardians in the Himalayan mountains. Some believe that most other mastiff breeds-including the English mastiff-are descendants from the Tibetan mastiff, although little recorded information is available and details of the breed's history remain largely unknown. 

It's not entirely clear when they first arrived in the U.S., but according to the American Tibetan Mastiff Association, two Tibetan mastiffs were sent as a diplomatic gift to President Dwight D. Eisenhower from the Ministry of Nepal in 1958. Perhaps because of their surprising size, stature, and appearance, they were reportedly then sent to a farm. 

About a decade later, Tibetan mastiffs were imported to the U.S. from Nepal and India and were bred as a household pet. The American Kennel Club recognized the breed in 2006.

tibetan mastiff standing in lake
It's easy for a Tibetan mastiff to put on some extra pounds. But moderate exercise, including daily walks with plenty of opportunities for sniffing all the smells, will keep him healthy and happy.
| Credit: viktorija / Adobe Stock

Fun Facts

  • Tibetan mastiffs are rare and revered for their unique appearance. So much so that in 2014, a Chinese businessman paid $1.9 million for the dog, according to the New York Post. The breeder told the Post: "They have lion's blood and are top-of-the-range mastiff studs." 
  • Legend has it that Marco Polo once encountered a Tibetan mastiff and said it was "tall as a donkey with a voice like a lion."
  • Despite their large size, Tibetan mastiffs have small, cat-like feet and are surprisingly nimble and spry.