Collie

Collie

Collies are gentle, loyal dogs who get along well with kids and other animals. Learn more about living with this affectionate herding breed.
Collie
Breed Group
Dog Size
Other Traits
Temperament
Collie
height
  • 22–26 inches
weight
  • 50–75 pounds
life span
  • 10–14 years
breed size
  • medium (26-60 lbs.)
good with
  • children
  • seniors
  • dogs
  • cats
  • families
temperament
  • gentle
  • friendly
  • playful
intelligence
  • high
shedding amount
  • seasonal
exercise needs
  • medium
energy level
  • active
barking level
  • when necessary
drool amount
  • low
breed group
  • herding
coat length/texture
  • long
  • short
colors
  • fawn
  • black
  • blue
  • gray
  • white
patterns
  • bicolor
  • tricolor
  • sable
  • merle
other traits
  • requires lots of grooming
  • cold weather tolerant
  • strong loyalty tendencies
  • good hiking companion

There's been no better ambassador to the collie breed than Lassie, the beloved dog from the 1940s silver screen who saves the day again and again. Like Lassie, collies are elegant, mid-to-large-size, and originally bred for herding livestock in Scotland hundreds of years ago. Since then, however, their gentle temperament and loyal nature have made them popular family pets and excellent therapy dogs.

There are two main varieties of collies: The rough collie has a long, sweeping coat (like Lassie), and the smooth collie has a much shorter coat.

Collies are active but not hyper, can be vocal, and are social creatures who are eager to please. With all of that gorgeous fur, you may be wondering: Do collies shed? The answer is yes, and hair on furniture is an inevitable part of having one in your family. But collie-lovers agree: This is a small price to pay for such an empathetic and loving dog.

Appearance

Collies are a mid-to-large-sized breed known for their long, slender, wedge-shaped faces and abundant fur. They look just as natural trotting gracefully down the sidewalk as they do running through the heather. Male collies are a bit larger, weighing 60–75 pounds and measuring 24–26 inches at the shoulder, while female collies tend to weigh 50–65 pounds and are typically 22–24 inches tall.

collie standing on a dirt road looking back
There are two types of collie: smooth and rough-coated. The latter is the fluffy, Lassie-like collie, whereas the former has a sleek, short coat.
| Credit: Rita Kochmarjova / Adobe Stock

Collies have bright but dark almond-shaped eyes. When alert, their ears perk up and tilt forward, giving them an inquisitive look that showcases their intelligence.

You might be most familiar with the long-haired "Lassie" collie, but there are, in fact, two kinds of collies. The rough collie has a long, flowing coat, giving her an elegant appearance. "This dog was bred with a harsh outer coat to protect them from the elements, and a soft inner coat to protect them and keep them warm," says Patricia Caldwell, the breed education chairperson at the Collie Club of America.

Smooth collies, on the other hand, were bred to help take animals to market and didn't need the extra-long fur to protect them from the weather out in the hills. And while both the rough and the smooth collie sheds seasonally, the latter's shorter coat is also easier to care for.

Both rough and smooth collies can come in four colors: 

  • Sable and white collies are a golden to mahogany color with white on the chest, feet, and tail. 
  • Tri-color collies are mostly black with similar white markings, plus some tan shading. 
  • Blue merle are marbled blue-grey, black, and white. 
  • White collies are mostly white with some sable, tri-color, or blue merle markings.

Temperament

Collies are known for their gentle, playful, and loyal temperament. "Because they were bred so specifically to be caretakers, they're wonderful dogs for families," Caldwell says. 

collie puppy walking towards camera
Because of their big brains, collie puppies are quick to pick up training cues and tricks. Use positive reinforcement techniques like head pats and treats to make learning go even smoother.
| Credit: Andy / Adobe Stock

The original architects of the breed, she explains, selected dogs who were eager to please and biddable. "Their focus is on people—they love their people." 

Suzy Royds, a collie breeder with more than 30 years of experience, agrees. "They give you eye contact. They want to bond and please you. They want to be your companion," Royds says. "They're super easy to train." She notes they're fantastic with children and other pets.

While friendly with strangers on walks, they can feel the need to watch after the home and will alert you to anything they think is out of the ordinary.

"The truth is, they bark," Royds says. "You know, they're talkers! And they will try to communicate with you." But with the right training and activity level, she says the barking can be mitigated. "A bored collie can be a nuisance barker."

Collie standing in snow
Credit: Eugenegg / Getty

Living Needs

With that in mind, a good home for a collie will have a fenced-in yard and either an animal playmate or an owner who is home for long stretches. If left alone for extended amounts of time, these social dogs can become bored and develop separation anxiety.

They like to run, Royds says, and enjoy some heart-pumping morning and afternoon exercise. But they're not hyper and don't have the constant go-go-go attitude that other working dogs, like border collies, might need. "On the whole, your collie will lie down and watch you do the dishes," Royds says.

two collies lying next to each other outside
The friendly collie fits right in with most families, including those with children and other fur babies.
| Credit: Rita Kochmarjova / Adobe Stock

If you're into the great outdoors, your collie will keep up. They enjoy everything from hikes to beach trips and can tolerate cold weather. If you are keeping a collie in hot weather, don't shave them—that heavy coat is actually protection from the heat, as well. But because they do have so much fur, always make sure your pup has access to shade, fresh water, and AC when the sun is hot. 

Care

Collies are all about their people. Because of this, always use positive reinforcement techniques for training (head pats and treats will go a long way!). "They want your love," Royds says. "They are very intuitive, and they read people's body language."

One of the most common questions people have about collies is about the hair, and yes, collies shed.

"If you love a collie, you need to be prepared to either groom [her] yourself or take [her] to the groomer once or twice a month," Royds says. She suggests weekly brushing and a bath and a brush-out once a month. "The slicker brush is going to be your best friend!"

collie smiling lying in an office
A collie wants to be wherever her favorite human is. These social pups are devoted family dogs.
| Credit: SrdjanPav / Getty

Starting around June, your collie will begin to "drop coat," or shed heavily, at which point you can take her to the groomer to get their loose coat cut out. She'll begin to put on a new coat again in the fall.

If you're hesitant about the amount of hair, consider a smooth collie puppy. Caldwell points out that while they also shed, the hair itself is shorter, so you'll have relatively less fur to vacuum up.

"We always say, 'a little bit of dog hair is not a bad thing.' If you have children, you probably have crayon marks," Caldwell says. "What you get in return is a dog that will be totally devoted to you forever."

happy collie dog
Credit: Ari Style Shots / Adobe Stock

Health

Collies live between 10–14 years. While they're generally healthy dogs, there are a few issues that affect this breed.

Collies can experience hip dysplasia, a condition in which the hip ball and socket don't fit together properly, resulting in a deteriorating joint over time. This condition is most common in large dogs, though collies experience it far less than other large breeds.

The other health issue that affects the breed is a genetic disorder called Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA). In dogs with this disorder, the blood vessels in the retina are not properly developed. Most pups with CEA do not experience any vision problems, but it can lead to blindness in other cases. Unfortunately, there is no cure for CEA. However, researchers have successfully identified the genetic mutation that causes the condition. This allows collie breeders to screen and carefully select to avoid CEA, which is why it is best to work with a reputable breeder with documented genetic testing when looking for a collie puppy.

Lassie the collie with young boy
Credit: CBS Photo Archive / Getty

History

"The collie originated in the Scottish highlands and also northern England," Caldwell says. "It was used not just to herd the sheep and the livestock, but also to protect the family and the children." 

Because of their role in herding, she explains, they were bred for both intelligence and agility. "Later on, during the 19th century, breeders began to work to create a physically sound dog that was not just biddable," Caldwell says.

The collie catapulted to popularity in England after Queen Victoria discovered the dogs on a visit to Balmoral Castle in Scotland. She acquired several collies of different colors for her royal kennels and, by the early 1860s, the collie was recognized as a pure breed.

portrait of a collie with First Lady Coolidge
President Calvin Coolidge and First Lady Grace Coolidge were pup parents to a white collie named Rob Roy.
| Credit: Courtesy of whitehousehistory.org

By the early 20th century, the collie caught the interest of fanciers in the United States, including American financier J.P. Morgan. He started his own collie kennel, importing and breeding dogs from England.

But the real boom came with the appearance of collies in popular literature, from Albert Terhune's Lad, A Dog to Eric Knight's famous Lassie Come-Home. In the 1940s film adaptation, Lassie was played by a dog named Pal.

Fun Facts

  • The impact of Lassie on both the collie breed and cinema history can't be overstated. Pal's progeny has filled the role of Lassie for TV shows and remakes, and the current Lassie is a 10th generation descendant who lives in Santa Clarita, Calif. Lassie is just one of three animals to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
  • But it's not just Lassie on the world stage. Several U.S. presidents have also had collies, including Lyndon B. Johnson, whose white collie, Blanco, was given to him as a holiday gift from a 9-year-old girl in Illinois. President Coolidge also had several collies, most famously one named Rob Roy, the first dog to appear in an official First Family photo portrait.
  • Despite having "collie" in their name, collies, border collies, and bearded collies are all distinct breeds.