Here's How to Litter Train a Kitten
Kittens and cats are generally very fastidious animals. That's good news when it comes to getting your kitten to use a litter box. Kittens take to a litter box relatively easily, because of their natural instinct to dig and bury.
"Cats will naturally eliminate in loose material that is available to them—like dirt, soil, or kitty litter," says Maria Delgado, PhD, CAAB, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. They clean up after themselves, too. "It's instinctual for cats to bury their waste with this type of material," she says.
Choosing a Kitten Litter Box
There are many different litter box designs, but it's important to research the best type for your individual kitten or cat. For young kittens, a litter box with low sides may be the best choice early in their life to make sure they can climb in and out of it without too much trouble.
Once your kitten grows older, you may want to purchase a litter box with higher sides, which is ideal for cats who fling litter out of the box after they go. Covered litter boxes offer a cavelike entrance that allows your cat to enter and do her business in private. However, be careful to monitor your cat's preferences, as many cats can be easily frightened or stressed if they can't see what's going on outside the litter box as they go. This may make them less likely to continue using it.
Selecting the Best Kitten Litter
Litter, the crumbly material that goes into a litter box and is thrown away after use, also comes in several options. Basic litter is a claylike gravel that absorbs cat urine. This litter gives a cat a loose medium to pee and poo in. Cats, being very clean animals, will bury their business by scratching around it, pulling litter overtop.
Another option, clumping litter, offers smaller granules that absorb liquids, making a neat little nugget that can be lifted from the tray with a slotted spoon-like tool and tossed away. This type of litter allows you to clean out messes while leaving the clean litter in the box. Litters may come unscented or scented.
Which is best? Your cat can tell you. "Some cats may also have texture preferences, and research has shown that most cats prefer a soft, sandy, scoopable litter," Delgado says. "Cats may avoid a litter box if it's not clean, so scoop at least once a day."
Where To Put Your Cat's Litter Box
Litter box location is important, too. "The box should be in a safe and quiet place, but it also needs to be accessible—so don't hide it away in the garage or basement," Delgado says. "If you have a busy household or multiple cats, the box should be placed somewhere that allows the cat to see if anyone is approaching," she says.
If you have multiple cats, you should also have multiple litter boxes. It's best for each cat to have their own box to prevent any bathroom-related conflicts. And the bigger your house is, the more litter boxes you'll want to supply. "I often see problems when people give a kitten the run of the entire house, but there's only one litter box and it's far away," Delgado says.
How to Litter Train a Kitten
You've brought your kitten home and you've bought the supplies. Now it's time to teach them how to use their litter box. While most cats pick up the habit quickly, here are some tips to make the training go as smooth as possible:
Introduce Your Kitten to the Litter Box
When you first bring your kitten home, make sure they know where their litter box is. Let them smell and explore getting in and out of the box on their own so they know it's safe. It can also help to place your kitten near or in the box after meals and naps to encourage them to go.
Delgado recommends keeping kittens confined to a smaller space when they're young to help them learn to use the litter box. "As you increase their access to territory, make sure there's always a litter box nearby until they're a bit older," she says. "Make sure your kitten has easy access to a few low-sided litter boxes."
Use Positive Reinforcement
Accidents happen, and you should never punish your kitten for going to the bathroom outside of her box. Playful kittens can sometimes not pay attention to their need to go until it's too late, says Cristin Tamburo Coll, Certified Feline Behavior Consultant at The Cat Counselor in Los Angeles. "Kittens play really hard. So sometimes, they have so much fun, they forget to go to the litter box and have an accident. It's important you don't punish them for accidents. When you see them using the litter box, reinforce behavior with positive reinforcement like treats or praise," she says.
"Have multiple boxes in your house when they're young to avoid some of those emergencies when they're playing. They're likely to use it if there is a litter box always close by," Tamburo Coll says.
Keep the Litter Box Clean
If your cat's litter box needs to be cleaned, she may choose to boycott it. "Litter should be cleaned daily and fully dumped and washed every seven to 10 days," says to Britt Gagne, Executive Director of Furry Friends Refuge in Des Moines, Iowa.
Test Different Litters
Other factors that can impact a kitten's success with litter box usage include their age and type of litter. Tamburo Coll stresses that sometimes it's not safe to use clumping clay litter when a kitten is 7 weeks to 3 months old. "Just like human toddlers, kittens like to put things in their mouth. Be careful what type of litter you use. Pellet or newsprint is best for this age," she says.
Kitty litter comes in various types, including clay clumping, non-clumping, silica crystal, corn, wood, wheat, and others. Then there's scented vs. unscented. Some cats may indicate their litter preference by refusing a new type. According to Tamburo Coll, you can try a slow transition by putting some of the new litter underneath the original type, and gradually using more and more of the new.
How to Litter Train a Stray Kitten
Pet owners who are thinking through how to litter train a stray kitten can encounter a different set of challenges. Litter box location is a really important factor when litter training any kitten, but is especially important when you're bringing in a lost, stray kitten from outside. "They feel safer in corners, especially if they're coming from outdoors to indoors," Tamburo Coll says.
If you're taking in a stray kitten, Tamburo Coll also suggests layering outdoor substances over the litter you want to use to make the cat feel more familiar with the material. She also suggests products like Dr. Elsey's Kitten Attract to entice your new kitten to use the box.
How Long Does It Take to Litter Train a Kitten?
Want to know how to litter train a kitten fast? Unfortunately, there's no magic formula. However, kittens are innately tidy animals and most breeds start to use the litter box fairly quickly within a few weeks of life. However, Tamburo Coll says kittens under 3 weeks old need to be stimulated by their mother and won't go to the bathroom on their own, so don't start litter training until they're older than 3 weeks.
If your kitty is still having trouble using the litter box after a few months, try changing the type of litter, box, or box location to see if there's a combination she prefers. If the issue persists, your veterinarian may be able to help.